Symbiotic Association of Beneficial Fungal Species with Plants to Enhance Agricultural Production and Productivity
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- Arbuscular Mycorrhiza, Fungus, Interaction, Mycorrhiza, Plant
- Ayana, Bogale
- Fungi are diverse organisms in ecosystem establishment in different ways of association with other organisms like Mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizas are associations between fungi and the roots or other underground organs of plants. Therefore, the review was made to point out important fungal species involved in symbiotic fungal-plant interaction and their major roles in agriculture as well as ecosystem. Most land plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi. The fungal organs are identified as chain, arbuscul, vesicle, supportive cells and spore. Mycorrhiza types are described as arbuscular, ecto, ectendo, arbutoid, monotropoid, ericoid and orchidaceous mycorrhiza. The vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza and ecto mycorrhiza are the most abundant, widespread and important fungal species involved in symbiotic fungal–plant interactions. They are described as symbiotic organisms because the fungus receives photo synthetically derived carbon compounds and the plant has increased access to mineral nutrients and sometimes water. Mycorrhizal fungi are important fungi species in nutrient exchange that greatly enhanced the ability of plants to take up phosphorus and other trace nutrients those are relatively immobile and exist in low concentration in the soil solution. Fungi can be important in the uptake of other nutrients by the host plant. Mycorrhiza establishes its symbiotic relationships with plants and plays an essential role in plant growth, disease protection, and overall soil quality. The other roles of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi involved in alleviation of heavy metal stress and increasing grain production. However, use of mycorrhizal biotechnology engineered establishment of mycorrhizal associations in land reclamation and revegetation is not well-practiced in many parts of the world. It is crucial to recognize and understand the molecular and ecological roles of mycorrhiza for agriculture, horticulture, forestry and soil remediation. Indiscriminate use of fertilizers and pesticides can inhibit the growth of mycorrhiza. Therefore, the development of mycorrhizal may be a better environmentally friendly alternative for agricultural practices like addition of inorganic fertilizers and can go a long way in maintaining a sustainable environment.
Full text: IJRAS_850_FINAL.pdf